In the face of your enemies,
in the face of harassment, ridicule, and doubt,
you held firm in your faith.
Even in your abandonment, alone and without friends,
you held firm in your faith.
Even as you faced your own mortality,
you held firm in your faith.
I pray that I may be as bold in my beliefs as you, St. Joan.
I ask that you ride alongside me in my own battles.
Help me be mindful that what is worthwhile can be won when I persist.
Help me hold firm in my faith. Help me believe in my ability to act well and wisely.
In French Jeanne d'Arc; by her contemporaries commonly known as la Pucelle (the Maid).
Born at Domremy in Champagne, probably on 6 January, 1412; died at Rouen, 30 May, 1431. The village of Domremy lay upon the confines of territory which recognized the suzerainty of the Duke of Burgundy, but in the protracted conflict between the Armagnacs (the party of Charles VII, King of France), on the one hand, and the Burgundians in alliance with the English, on the other, Domremy had always remained loyal to Charles.
Jacques d'Arc, Joan's father, was a small peasant farmer, poor but not needy. Joan seems to have been the youngest of a family of five. She never learned to read or write but was skilled in sewing and spinning, and the popular idea that she spent the days of her childhood in the pastures, alone with the sheep and cattle, is quite unfounded. All the witnesses in the process of rehabilitation spoke of her as a singularly pious child, grave beyond her years, who often knelt in the church absorbed in prayer, and loved the poor tenderly. Great attempts were made at Joan's trial to connect her with some superstitious practices supposed to have been performed round a certain tree, popularly known as the "Fairy Tree" (l'Arbre des Dames), but the sincerity of her answers baffled her judges. She had sung and danced there with the other children, and had woven wreaths for Our Lady's statue, but since she was twelve years old she had held aloof from such diversions.
It was at the age of thirteen and a half, in the summer of 1425, that Joan first became conscious of that manifestation, whose supernatural
character it would now be rash to question, which she afterwards came
to call her "voices" or her "counsel." It was at first simply a voice,
as if someone had spoken quite close to her, but it seems also clear
that a blaze of light accompanied it, and that later on she clearly
discerned in some way the appearance of those who spoke to her,
recognizing them individually as St. Michael (who was accompanied by other angels), St. Margaret, St. Catherine,
and others. Joan was always reluctant to speak of her voices. She said
nothing about them to her confessor, and constantly refused, at her
trial, to be inveigled into descriptions of the appearance of the saints
and to explain how she recognized them. None the less, she told her
judges: "I saw them with these very eyes, as well as I see you."
Great efforts have been made by rationalistic historians, such as M. Anatole France, to explain these voices as the result of a condition of religious and hysterical exaltation which had been fostered in Joan by priestly influence, combined with certain prophecies current in the countryside of a maiden from the bois chesnu (oak wood), near which the Fairy Tree was situated, who was to save France by a miracle. But the baselessness of this analysis
of the phenomena has been fully exposed by many non-Catholic writers.
There is not a shadow of evidence to support this theory of priestly advisers coaching Joan in a part, but much which contradicts it. Moreover, unless we accuse the Maid of deliberate falsehood, which no one is prepared to do, it was the voices which created the state of patriotic exaltation, and not the exaltation which preceded the voices. Her evidence on these points is clear.
Although Joan never made any statement as to the date at which the voices revealed her mission, it seems certain that the call of God was only made known to her gradually. But by May, 1428, she no longer doubted
that she was bidden to go to the help of the king, and the voices
became insistent, urging her to present herself to Robert Baudricourt,
who commanded for Charles VII in the neighbouring town of Vaucouleurs.
This journey she eventually accomplished a month later, but Baudricourt,
a rude and dissolute soldier, treated her and her mission with scant
respect, saying to the cousin who accompanied her: "Take her home to her
father and give her a good whipping."
Meanwhile the military situation of King Charles and his supporters was growing more desperate. Orléans
was invested (12 October, 1428), and by the close of the year complete
defeat seemed imminent. Joan's voices became urgent, and even
threatening. It was in vain that she resisted, saying to them: "I am a poor girl; I do not know how to ride or fight." The voices only reiterated: "It is God who commands it." Yielding at last, she left Domremy in January, 1429, and again visited Vaucouleurs.
Baudricourt was still skeptical,
but, as she stayed on in the town, her persistence gradually made an
impression on him. On 17 February she announced a great defeat which had
befallen the French arms outside Orléans
(the Battle of the Herrings). As this statement was officially
confirmed a few days later, her cause gained ground. Finally she was
suffered to seek the king at Chinon, and she made her way there with a
slender escort of three men-at-arms, she being attired, at her own
request, in male costume — undoubtedly as a protection to her modesty in
the rough life of the camp. She always slept fully dressed, and all
those who were intimate with her declared that there was something about
her which repressed every unseemly thought in her regard.
She reached Chinon on 6 March, and
two days later was admitted into the presence of Charles VII. To test
her, the king had disguised himself, but she at once saluted him without
hesitation amidst a group of attendants. From the beginning a strong
party at the court — La Trémoille, the royal favourite, foremost among
them — opposed her as a crazy visionary, but a secret sign, communicated to her by her voices, which she made known to Charles, led the king, somewhat half-heartedly, to believe in her mission. What this sign was, Joan never revealed, but it is now most commonly believed that this "secret of the king" was a doubt Charles had conceived of the legitimacy of his birth, and which Joan had been supernaturally authorized to set at rest.
Still, before Joan could be employed in military operations she was sent to Poitiers to be examined by a numerous committee of learned bishops and doctors.
The examination was of the most searching and formal character. It is
regrettable in the extreme that the minutes of the proceedings, to which
Joan frequently appealed later on at her trial, have altogether perished. All that we know is that her ardent faith, simplicity, and honesty made a favourable impression. The theologians found nothing heretical in her claims to supernatural
guidance, and, without pronouncing upon the reality of her mission,
they thought that she might be safely employed and further tested.
Returning to Chinon, Joan made her
preparations for the campaign. Instead of the sword the king offered
her, she begged that search might be made for an ancient sword buried, as she averred, behind the altar in the chapel of Ste-Catherine-de-Fierbois. It was found in the very spot her voices indicated. There was made for her at the same time a standard bearing the words Jesus, Maria, with a picture of God the Father, and kneeling angels presenting a fleur-de-lis.
But perhaps the most interesting
fact connected with this early stage of her mission is a letter of one
Sire de Rotslaer written from Lyons on 22 April, 1429, which was delivered at Brussels and duly registered, as the manuscript
to this day attests, before any of the events referred to received
their fulfilment. The Maid, he reports, said "that she would save Orléans and would compel the English to raise the siege, that she herself in a battle before Orléans would be wounded by a shaft but would not die of it, and that the King, in the course of the coming summer, would be crowned at Reims, together with other things which the King keeps secret."
Before entering upon her campaign, Joan summoned the King of England to withdraw his troops from French soil. The English commanders were furious at the audacity of the demand, but Joan by a rapid movement entered Orléans on 30 April. Her presence there at once worked wonders. By 8 May the English
forts which encircled the city had all been captured, and the siege
raised, though on the 7th Joan was wounded in the breast by an arrow. So
far as the Maid went she wished to follow up these successes with all
speed, partly from a sound warlike instinct,
partly because her voices had already told her that she had only a year
to last. But the king and his advisers, especially La Trémoille and the
Archbishop of Reims,
were slow to move. However, at Joan's earnest entreaty a short campaign
was begun upon the Loire, which, after a series of successes, ended on
18 June with a great victory at Patay, where the English reinforcements sent from Paris under Sir John Fastolf were completely routed. The way to Reims was now practically open, but the Maid had the greatest difficulty in persuading the commanders not to retire before Troyes, which was at first closed against them. They captured the town and then, still reluctantly, followed her to Reims, where, on Sunday, 17 July, 1429, Charles VII was solemnly crowned, the Maid standing by with her standard, for — as she explained — "as it had shared in the toil, it was just that it should share in the victory."
The principal aim of Joan's mission
was thus attained, and some authorities assert that it was now her wish
to return home, but that she was detained with the army against her will.
The evidence is to some extent conflicting, and it is probable that
Joan herself did not always speak in the same tone. Probably she saw
clearly how much might have been done to bring about the speedy
expulsion of the English from French
soil, but on the other hand she was constantly oppressed by the apathy
of the king and his advisers, and by the suicidal policy which snatched
at every diplomatic bait thrown out by the Duke of Burgundy.
An abortive attempt on Paris was made at the end of August. Though St-Denis
was occupied without opposition, the assault which was made on the city
on 8 September was not seriously supported, and Joan, while heroically
cheering on her men to fill the moat, was shot through the thigh with a
bolt from a crossbow. The Duc d'Alençon removed her almost by force, and
the assault was abandoned. The reverse unquestionably impaired Joan's
prestige, and shortly afterwards, when, through Charles' political
counsellors, a truce was signed with the Duke of Burgundy, she sadly laid down her arms upon the altar of St-Denis.
The inactivity of the following winter, mostly spent amid the worldliness and the jealousy of the Court, must have been a miserable experience for Joan. It may have been with the idea of consoling her that Charles, on 29 December, 1429, ennobled the Maid and all her family, who henceforward, from the lilies on their coat of arms,
were known by the name of Du Lis. It was April before Joan was able to
take the field again at the conclusion of the truce, and at Melun her
voices made known to her that she would be taken prisoner before Midsummer Day. Neither was the fulfilment of this prediction long delayed. It seems that she had thrown herself into Compiègne on 24 May at sunrise to defend the town against Burgundian
attack. In the evening she resolved to attempt a sortie, but her little
troop of some five hundred encountered a much superior force. Her
followers were driven back and retired desperately fighting. By some
mistake or panic of Guillaume de Flavy, who commanded in Compiègne, the
drawbridge was raised while still many of those who had made the sortie
remained outside, Joan amongst the number. She was pulled down from her
horse and became the prisoner
of a follower of John of Luxemburg. Guillaume de Flavy has been accused
of deliberate treachery, but there seems no adequate reason to suppose
this. He continued to hold Compiègne resolutely for his king, while
Joan's constant thought during the early months of her captivity was to
escape and come to assist him in this task of defending the town.
No words can adequately describe the disgraceful ingratitude and apathy of Charles and his advisers in leaving the Maid to her fate. If military force had not availed, they had prisoners like the Earl of Suffolk in their hands, for whom she could have been exchanged. Joan was sold by John of Luxembourg to the English for a sum which would amount to several hundred thousand dollars in modern money. There can be no doubt that the English, partly because they feared their prisoner with a superstitious terror, partly because they were ashamed of the dread which she inspired, were determined at all costs to take her life. They could not put her to death for having beaten them, but they could get her sentenced as a witch and a heretic.
Moreover, they had a tool ready to their hand in Pierre Cauchon, the Bishop of Beauvais, an unscrupulous and ambitious man who was the creature of the Burgundian party. A pretext for invoking his authority was found in the fact that Compiègne, where Joan was captured, lay in the Diocese of Beauvais. Still, as Beauvais was in the hands of the French, the trial took place at Rouen — the latter see being at that time vacant. This raised many points of technical legality which were summarily settled by the parties interested.
The Vicar of the Inquisition at first, upon some scruple of jurisdiction, refused to attend, but this difficulty was overcome before the trial ended. Throughout the trial Cauchon's assessors consisted almost entirely of Frenchmen, for the most part theologians and doctors of the University of Paris.
Preliminary meetings of the court took place in January, but it was
only on 21 February, 1431, that Joan appeared for the first time before
her judges. She was not allowed an advocate, and, though accused in an ecclesiastical court, she was throughout illegally confined in the Castle of Rouen, a secular prison, where she was guarded by dissolute English soldiers. Joan bitterly complained of this. She asked to be in the church prison, where she would have had female attendants. It was undoubtedly for the better protection of her modesty under such conditions that she persisted in retaining her male attire. Before she had been handed over to the English, she had attempted to escape by desperately throwing herself from the window of the tower of Beaurevoir, an act of seeming presumption
for which she was much browbeaten by her judges. This also served as a
pretext for the harshness shown regarding her confinement at Rouen, where she was at first kept in an iron cage, chained by the neck, hands, and feet. On the other hand she was allowed no spiritual privileges — e.g. attendance at Mass — on account of the charge of heresy and the monstrous dress (difformitate habitus) she was wearing.
As regards the official record of the trial, which, so far as the Latin
version goes, seems to be preserved entire, we may probably trust its
accuracy in all that relates to the questions asked and the answers
returned by the prisoner.
These answers are in every way favourable to Joan. Her simplicity,
piety, and good sense appear at every turn, despite the attempts of the
judges to confuse her. They pressed her regarding her visions,
but upon many points she refused to answer. Her attitude was always
fearless, and, upon 1 March, Joan boldly announced that "within seven
years' space the English would have to forfeit a bigger prize than Orléans." In point of fact Paris
was lost to Henry VI on 12 November, 1437 — six years and eight months
afterwards. It was probably because the Maid's answers perceptibly won
sympathizers for her in a large assembly that Cauchon decided to conduct
the rest of the inquiry before a small committee of judges in the prison
itself. We may remark that the only matter in which any charge of
prevarication can be reasonably urged against Joan's replies occurs
especially in this stage of the inquiry. Joan, pressed about the secret
sign given to the king, declared that an angel
brought him a golden crown, but on further questioning she seems to
have grown confused and to have contradicted herself. Most authorities
(like, e.g., M. Petit de Julleville and Mr. Andrew Lang) are agreed that
she was trying to guard the king's secret behind an allegory, she
herself being the angel; but others — for instance P. Ayroles and Canon Dunand — insinuate that the accuracy of the procès-verbal cannot be trusted. On another point she was prejudiced by her lack of education.
The judges asked her to submit herself to "the Church Militant." Joan
clearly did not understand the phrase and, though willing and anxious to
appeal to the pope, grew puzzled and confused. It was asserted later that Joan's reluctance to pledge herself to a simple acceptance of the Church's
decisions was due to some insidious advice treacherously imparted to
her to work her ruin. But the accounts of this alleged perfidy are
contradictory and improbable.
terminated on 17 March. Seventy propositions were then drawn up,
forming a very disorderly and unfair presentment of Joan's "crimes,"
but, after she had been permitted to hear and reply to these, another
set of twelve were drafted, better arranged and less extravagantly
worded. With this summary of her misdeeds before them, a large majority of the twenty-two judges who took part in the deliberations declared Joan's visions and voices to be "false and diabolical," and they decided that if she refused to retract she was to be handed over to the secular arm — which was the same as saying that she was to be burned. Certain formal admonitions,
at first private, and then public, were administered to the poor victim
(18 April and 2 May), but she refused to make any submission which the
judges could have considered satisfactory. On 9 May she was threatened
with torture, but she still held firm. Meanwhile, the twelve
propositions were submitted to the University of Paris, which, being extravagantly English in sympathy, denounced the Maid in violent
terms. Strong in this approval, the judges, forty-seven in number, held
a final deliberation, and forty-two reaffirmed that Joan ought to be
declared heretical and handed over to the civil power, if she still refused to retract. Another admonition followed in the prison on 22 May, but Joan remained unshaken. The next day a stake was erected in the cemetery of St-Ouen, and in the presence of a great crowd she was solemnly admonished for the last time. After a courageous
protest against the preacher's insulting reflections on her king,
Charles VII, the accessories of the scene seem at last to have worked
upon mind and body worn out by so many struggles. Her courage for once failed her. She consented to sign some sort of retraction, but what the precise terms of that retraction were will never be known.
In the official record of the process a form of retraction is in
inserted which is most humiliating in every particular. It is a long
document which would have taken half an hour to read. What was read
aloud to Joan and was signed by her must have been something quite
different, for five witnesses
at the rehabilitation trial, including Jean Massieu, the official who
had himself read it aloud, declared that it was only a matter of a few
lines. Even so, the poor victim did not sign unconditionally, but
plainly declared that she only retracted in so far as it was God's will. However, in virtue of this concession, Joan was not then burned, but conducted back to prison.
The English and Burgundians
were furious, but Cauchon, it seems, placated them by saying, "We shall
have her yet." Undoubtedly her position would now, in case of a
relapse, be worse than before, for no second retractation could save her
from the flames. Moreover, as one of the points upon which she had been
condemned was the wearing of male apparel, a resumption of that attire
would alone constitute a relapse into heresy,
and this within a few days happened, owing, it was afterwards alleged,
to a trap deliberately laid by her jailers with the connivance of
Cauchon. Joan, either to defend her modesty from outrage, or because her
garments were taken from her, or, perhaps, simply because she was weary
of the struggle and was convinced that her enemies were determined to
have her blood upon some pretext, once more put on the man's dress which
had been purposely left in her way. The end now came soon. On 29 May a
court of thirty-seven judges decided unanimously that the Maid must be
treated as a relapsed heretic, and this sentence
was actually carried out the next day (30 May, 1431) amid circumstances
of intense pathos. She is said, when the judges visited her early in
the morning, first to have charged Cauchon with the responsibility of
her death, solemnly appealing from him to God, and afterwards to have declared that "her voices had deceived her." About this last speech a doubt
must always be felt. We cannot be sure whether such words were ever
used, and, even if they were, the meaning is not plain. She was,
however, allowed to make her confession and to receive Communion. Her demeanour at the stake was such as to move even her bitter enemies to tears. She asked for a cross, which, after she had embraced it, was held up before her while she called continuously upon the name of Jesus. "Until the last," said Manchon, the recorder at the trial, "she declared that her voices came from God and had not deceived her." After death her ashes were thrown into the Seine.
Twenty-four years later a revision of her trial, the procès de réhabilitation, was opened at Paris with the consent of the Holy See. The popular feeling was then very different, and, with but the rarest exceptions, all the witnesses were eager to render their tribute to the virtues and supernatural gifts of the Maid. The first trial had been conducted without reference to the pope; indeed it was carried out in defiance of St. Joan's appeal to the head of the Church. Now an appellate court constituted by the pope, after long inquiry and examination of witnesses, reversed and annulled the sentence
pronounced by a local tribunal under Cauchon's presidency. The
illegality of the former proceedings was made clear, and it speaks well
for the sincerity of this new inquiry that it could not be made without
inflicting some degree of reproach upon both the King of France and the Church at large, seeing that so great an injustice
had been done and had so long been suffered to continue unredressed.
Even before the rehabilitation trial, keen observers, like Eneas Sylvius
Piccolomini (afterwards Pope Pius II), though still in doubt as to her mission, had discerned something of the heavenly character of the Maid. In Shakespeare's day she was still regarded in England as a witch in league with the fiends of hell, but a juster
estimate had begun to prevail even in the pages of Speed's "History of
Great Britaine" (1611). By the beginning of the nineteenth century the
sympathy for her even in England
was general. Such writers as Southey, Hallam, Sharon Turner, Carlyle,
Landor, and, above all, De Quincey greeted the Maid with a tribute of
respect which was not surpassed even in her own native land. Among her Catholic fellow-countrymen she had been regarded, even in her lifetime, as Divinely inspired.
At last the cause of her beatification was introduced upon occasion of an appeal addressed to the Holy See, in 1869, by Mgr Dupanloup, Bishop of Orléans, and, after passing through all its stages and being duly confirmed by the necessary miracles, the process ended in the decree being published by Pius X on 11 April, 1909. A Mass and Office of St. Joan, taken from the "Commune Virginum," with "proper" prayers, have been approved by the Holy See for use in the Diocese of Orléans.
St. Joan was canonized in 1920 by Pope Benedict XV.